Target pest: Hypericum perforatum (Malpighiales: Hypericaceae), St John's wort
Agent introduced: Chrysolina quadrigemina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), greater St John's wort beetle
1965, 1967, 1990
1963 - Europe via Australia; 1990 - Europe via Canada
Harman et al. (1996) - a new population of C. quadrigemina thought to be better adapted climatically for New Zealand was introduced from Canada in 1990.
1963 (from Australia); 1990 (from Canada)
Fraser & Emberson (1987) - in 1963 an unrecorded number of beetles were released at two sites in Marlborough. Between 1965 and 1968, 152,000 were released at 10 sites in Canterbury and Otago.
Harman et al. (1996) - beetles from Canada, thought to be better adapted climatically for New Zealand, released in 1990.
Fraser & Emberson (1987) - four C. quadrigemina were collected at Ben Ohau (Canterbury) in 1977 but apart from this collection the species had not been recovered in New Zealand since its release and its survival was uncertain, particularly as further checks at the collection site at Ben Ohau in 1978 and 1981 failed to confirm the presence of the beetle. However, in 1984 C. quadrigemina was rediscovered at two widely separate localities: Wairau Valley, in Marlborough and Clyde and Tarras (about 50km from Clyde) in Central Otago. It seems that C. quadrigemina is probably widely distributed in the South Island, but perhaps patchily, and is only present in relatively low numbers compared to C. hyperici (lesser St John's wort beetle).
Harman et al. (1996) - recoveries of beetles from Canada released in 1990 have been made.
Groenteman (2014) - initially appeared to have disappeared, but has become common in recent times, and can be found on St John's wort infestations in most places.
Impacts on target:
Cameron et al. (1989) - of the two St John's wort beetles introduced (C. hyperici and C. quadrigemina), C.hyperici is the only one to have become successfully established and reached sufficiently high populations to have had an impact on its host plant.
Syrett (1997) - occurs in mixed populations with Chrysolina hyperici and occasionally outbreaks of these chrysomelids completely defoliate plants. Not as widespread or dominant as C. hyperici - studies indicate its reproductive diapause strategy is less successful in areas with colder winters. No longer reports of areas in NZ where St John's wort is a problem weed - it is concluded successful biocontrol is at least partially responsible.
Groenteman (2014), Landcare Research (2014c) - with the lesser St John's wort beetle (C. hyperici) extremely effective at controlling St John's wort, though not believed to be as significant as C. hyperici.
Landcare Research (2014d), Groenteman (2014) - recent insecticide exclusion trials have showed that it is St John's wort beetles (C. quadrigemina and C. hyperici) rather than other factors that have reduced the weed's abundance. A recent economic analysis has estimated that the Net Present Value of introducing the beetles is between $140 and $1,490 million over 70 years, a benefit to cost ratio of 10:1 and 100:1 respectively.
Impacts on non-targets:
Paynter et al. (2004) - lab testing predicted severe non-target damage, and potentially underestimated non-target impacts in that Hypericum gramineum and the natives H. perforatum and H. japonicum weren't tested. Surveys on H. gramineum and H. japonicum are on-going and it is too early to assess non-target impacts, but to-date no non-target feeding has been observed, although C. quadrigemina, which is adapted to warmer climates, has been recorded feeding on H. gramineum in Australia.
Groenteman (2014) - under artificial conditions in the lab will accept other Hypericum species as hosts, but this has not been replicated in the field.
Paynter et al. (2015) - surveys of potential non-target hosts the natives Hypericum involutum and H. pusillum showed minor 'spillover' feeding on both.
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.
Fraser B, Emberson R (1987). Rediscovery of Chrysolina quadrigemina (Suffrian) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 9(1): 57-59 https://doi.org/10.1080/00779962.1987.9722494
Groenteman R (2014). St John's wort beetles. In The Biological Control of weeds book (Landcare Research). https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/discover-our-research/biosecurity/weed-management/using-biocontrol/the-biological-control-of-weeds-book/
Harman HM, Syrett P, Hill RL, Jessep CT. (1996). Arthropod introductions for biological control of weeds in New Zealand, 1929 - 1995. New Zealand Entomologist, 19(1): 71-80
Landcare Research (2007a). New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) Biological Control Voucher Collection. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/resources/collections/nzac/holdings/biological-control-voucher-collection
Landcare Research (2014c). Who's who in biocontrol of weeds? What's new in biological control of weeds? 69: 10-11 http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/biological-control-of-weeds/issue-69
Landcare Research (2014d). Whodunnit? Solving the case of the disappearing St John's wort. What's new in biological control of weeds? 68: 7 http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/biological-control-of-weeds/issue-68
Paynter QE, Fowler SV, Gourlay AH, Peterson PG, Smith LA and Winks CJ (2015). Relative performance on test and target plants in laboratory tests predicts the risk of non-target attack in the field for arthropod weed biocontrol agents. Biological Control 80: 133-142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.10.007
Paynter, Q.E., Fowler, A.H., Gourlay, M.L., Haines, M.L., Harman, H.M., Hona, S.R., Peterson, P.G., Smith, L.A., Wilson-Davey, J.R.A., Winks, C.J. and Withers, T.M. (2004). Safety in New Zealand weed biocontrol: A nationwide survey for impacts on non-target plants. New Zealand Plant Protection 57: 102-107
Syrett P (1997). Biological control of St. John's wort in New Zealand. Plant Protection Quarterly 12 (2): 88-90