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Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) = Pseudococcus affinis, Pseudococcus obscurus, obscure mealybug

Agent introduced: Plesiochrysa ramburi (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) = Chrysopa ramburi



Import source:

Australia via California, USA

Import notes:

Cameron et al. (1989) - in December 1928, 21 P. ramburi [as Chrysopa ramburi] cocoons were received from California, USA, originating from material collected in Australia between August 1927 and February 1928. They were taken to the Cawthron Institute in Nelson. Ten adults emerged, but these soon died and no eggs were obtained. There is some evidence that several earlier importations of ‘Chrysopa sp.’ were, in fact, P. ramburi [see the Chrysopa sp. against P. viburni introduction record].


Cameron et al. (1989) - not released.

General comments:

Taxonomic note (26 February 2023) - Pseudococcus viburni is best known in earlier literature as Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell 1894) and P. obscurus Essig 1909, from which is derived its common name ‘obscure mealybug’ (Charles 2011). Cameron et al. (1989), for example, refer to it as P. affinis. However, Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1995) designated these names (and others) as junior synonyms of P. viburni (Signoret 1875).


Ben-Dov Y, Matile-Ferrero D (1995). The identity of the mealybug taxa described by V.A. Signoret (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 100(3): 241-256 https://www.persee.fr/doc/bsef_0037-928x_1995_num_100_3_17152

Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.

Charles JG (2011). Using parasitoids to infer a native range for the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, in South America. BioControl 56(2): 155-161