Target pest: Ulex europaeus (Fabales: Fabaceae), gorse
Agent introduced: Cydia ulicetana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), gorse pod moth
Imported: 1989 1990
Import source: 1989 England, 1990 Portugal
Import notes: The taxonomy of this species is not clear with some taxonomists splitting C. ulicetana into 2 species - C. ulicetana and C. succedana. The moths collected from England are considered to be C. ulicetana but the identity of the moths from Portugal is uncertain.
Release details: released widely in 1990s
Establishment: Widely established throughout the country.
Impacts on target: Together with Exapion ulicis, destroys most seed produced in spring. It may destroy 15-20% of the seed that sets in autumn, but overall suppression in annual seed production is probably not sufficient to influence gorse population dynamics.
Impacts on non-targets: Low levels of attack have been recorded on Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom), Spartium junceum (Spanish broom), Genista monpessulana (Montpellier broom), Lupinus arboreus (tree lupin), Lupinus polyphyllus (Russell lupin) and Lotus pedunculatus (birdsfoot trefoil).
Gourlay H (2007). Gorse Pod Moth. In The Biological Control of Weeds Book (Landcare Research) http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/weeds/book/documents/Gorse_Pod_Moth.pdf
Hill RL, Ireson J, Sheppard AW, Gourlay AH, Norambuena H, Markin GP, Kwong R, and Coombs E. (2007). A global view of the future for biological control of gorse, Ulex europaeus L. In Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on the Biological control of Weeds (eds Julien MH, Sforza R, Bon MC, Evans HC, Hatcher PE, Hinz HL, Rector BG), pp. 680-686. CAB International , Wallingford, UK.
Landcare Research (2005). Making sense of field findings. What's New In Biological Control of Weeds?. Annual Review. 33: 4-5 http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/20610/wtsnew33.pdf
Landcare Research (2007). New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) Biological Control Voucher Collection. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/resources/collections/nzac/holdings/biological-control-voucher-collection