Target pest: aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Agent introduced: Harmonia conformis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Imported: 1896, 1898, 1964 and 1976
Import source: 1896, 1898 and 1964-Australia, 1977 Tasmania, Australia.
Released: 1896,1898, 1964, 1977
Release details: Sites of early releases are unknown, 200 were released in Canterbury in 1964 and in 1977, 200+ were released in Canterbury and hundreds in Auckland.
Establishment: Relatively common in Auckland Province but distribution appears limited by climate. Did not establish in Canterbury and despite early reports stating it was widespread it does not appear to have established outside of Auckland.
Cameron et al. (1989) - of the large number of exotic aphids present in New Zealand, five important field and fruit crop species were initially considered as the targets for biocontrol in the second phase (from 1965) of introductions of beneficial insects, although it is recognised that many other species which attack host plants in New Zealand can be of sporadic or regional importance. Those five species are: Brevicoryne brassicae [cabbage aphid], Myzus persicae [green peach aphid], Rhopalosiphum padi [bird cherry-oat aphid], Sitobion miscanthi [Indian grain aphid] and Macrosiphum euphorbiae [potato aphid]. [Aphid pests that have been targeted by specific biocontrol agents in New Zealand are: Acyrthosiphon kondoi (bluegreen lucerne aphid), Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid) Cavariella aegopodii (carrot-willow aphid), Eriosoma lanigerum (woolly apple aphid), Hyperomyzus lactucae (sowthistle aphid) Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grain aphid), Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), Therioaphis trifolii (spotted alfalfa aphid), Tuberculatus annulatus (oak aphid) and Tuberolachnus salignus (giant willow aphid). See the introduction records for these target species for details.]
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.