Target pest: aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Agent introduced: Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
USA (1899); California, USA (1921)
Cameron et al. (1989) - Hippodamia convergens was reportedly first introduced into New Zealand in 1899 from USA but failed to establish. In September 1921, a consignment of 27,000 adults was sent from Sacramento, California, USA to the Cawthron Institute in Nelson; 11,000 survived and were distributed around the country for release.
Cameron et al. (1989) - details of releases made in 1899 are not known. Eleven thousand adults imported in 1921 were distributed for release in lots of 50 to applicants in Nelson, South Island, with smaller numbers being sent to Auckland, Hastings and New Plymouth in the North Island and Blenheim, Christchurch (Canterbury) and Dunedin in the South Island, where they were placed out on various host trees.
Cameron et al. (1989) - there is no evidence this species became established.
Cameron et al. (1989) - of the large number of exotic aphids present in New Zealand, five important field and fruit crop species were initially considered as the targets for biocontrol in the second phase (from 1965) of introductions of beneficial insects, although it is recognised that many other species which attack host plants in New Zealand can be of sporadic or regional importance. Those five species are: Brevicoryne brassicae [cabbage aphid], Myzus persicae [green peach aphid], Rhopalosiphum padi [bird cherry-oat aphid], Sitobion miscanthi [Indian grain aphid] and Macrosiphum euphorbiae [potato aphid]. [Aphid pests that have been targeted by specific biocontrol agents in New Zealand are: Acyrthosiphon kondoi (bluegreen lucerne aphid), Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid) Cavariella aegopodii (carrot-willow aphid), Eriosoma lanigerum (woolly apple aphid), Hyperomyzus lactucae (sowthistle aphid) Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grain aphid), Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), Therioaphis trifolii (spotted alfalfa aphid), Tuberculatus annulatus (oak aphid) and Tuberolachnus salignus (giant willow aphid). See the introduction records for these target species for details.]
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.
Tillyard RJ (1923). History of the introduction of beneficial insects into New Zealand. Proceedings of the Pan-Pacific Science Congress, Australia, 383-390.