Target pest: Ulex europaeus (Fabales: Fabaceae), gorse
Agent introduced: Sericothrips staphylinus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), gorse thrips
1989 and 2001
Cornwall, England, 1989; Portugal via Hawai'i, 2001
Gourlay (2007f) - the English strain imported in 1989 thought to be slow to disperse because winged forms not produced as commonly as non-winged. Consequently a Portuguese strain, thought to disperse more quickly, was imported in 2001.
1990s and post-2001
Gourlay (2007f) - the English strain was widely released in the few years after its importation in 1989. The Portuguese strain was imported in 2001 and widely released in subsequent years.
Harman et al. (1996) - seems to be establishing readily throughout the country.
Gourlay (2007f) - the English strain established at sites throughout New Zealand but has been slow to disperse. The Portuguese strain has also established. The thrips are becoming increasingly common throughout New Zealand.
Impacts on target:
Gourlay (2007f) - not yet known.
Paynter et al. (2018) - while S. staphylinus is abundant, impacts on the target plant are unknown but appear to be minor.
Lam et al. (2021) - laboratory trials investigating the functional responses of a predatory mite found on gorse in New Zealand, Amblyseius herbicolus, to first instar S. staphylinus larvae, indicate that A. herbicolus is likely to be a highly effective predator of S. staphylinus. These results indicate that the presence of A. herbicolus on gorse in New Zealand is a likely explanation for the failure of S. staphylinus as a weed biocontrol agent.
Impacts on non-targets:
Paynter et al. (2015) - surveys of potential non-target host Cytisus proliferus (tree lucerne, tagasaste) report no feeding.
Gourlay H (2007f). Gorse Thrips. In The Biological Control of Weeds Book (Landcare Research) https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/discover-our-research/biosecurity/weed-management/using-biocontrol/the-biological-control-of-weeds-book/
Harman HM, Syrett P, Hill RL, Jessep CT. (1996). Arthropod introductions for biological control of weeds in New Zealand, 1929 - 1995. New Zealand Entomologist, 19(1): 71-80
Lam W, Paynter Q, Zhang Z-Q. (2021). Functional response of Amblyseius herbicolus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Sericothrips staphylinus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an ineffective biocontrol agent of gorse. Biological Control 152, January 2021, art. no. 104468 (first published online Nov 2020) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104468
Paynter Q, Fowler SV, Groenteman R. (2018). Making weed biological control predictable, safer and more effective: perspectives from New Zealand. BioControl 63: 427â€“436 (first published online 8 Aug 2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-017-9837-5 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10526-017-9837-5
Paynter QE, Fowler SV, Gourlay AH, Peterson PG, Smith LA and Winks CJ (2015). Relative performance on test and target plants in laboratory tests predicts the risk of non-target attack in the field for arthropod weed biocontrol agents. Biological Control 80: 133-142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.10.007