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Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Cirsium arvense (Asterales: Asteraceae), Californian thistle

Agent introduced: Apion onopordi (Coleoptera: Brentidae) = Ceratapion onopordi, Acanephodus onopordi, Californian thistle stem miner

Imported: 2003, 2007

Import notes: 2003 - Approved for Import ERMA NOC002297, Hugh Gourlay, Landcare Research, Lincoln. 2007 - Approved for import ERMA NOC000040 The Californian Thistle Action Group.

Released: First releases were made in 2008

Release details: Approved for release under ERMA approval code NOR000040

Establishment: Not known

References

Gourlay H (2010). Californian Thistle Stem Miner. In The Biological Control of Weeds Book (Landcare Research) http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/weeds/book/documents/Californian_Thistle_Stem_Miner.pdf