- Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera: Diaspididae), oleander scale
- Hemiberlesia lataniae (Homoptera: Diaspididae), lantana scale
- Hemiberlesia rapax (Homoptera: Diaspididae), greedy scale
Agent introduced: Chilocorus kuwanae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Import source: USA (Maryland)
Import notes: Charles et al. (1995) - 36 laboratory colony-reared adults imported with various species of Diaspididae for food.
Released: Not released (see 'General Comments' below)
Impacts on non-targets: Charles et al. (1995) - laboratory studies showed C. kuwanae did not feed on the New Zealand endemic species, the sixpenny scale Ctenochiton viridis.
General comments: Charles et al. (1995) - in July 1989 the proposed introduction of C. kuwanae was initially supported, but following the importation into quarantine in August 1990 there was debate over whether C. kuwanae would threaten endemic scale insects (Coccidae). Despite subsequent laboratory studies showing C. kuwanae did not feed on the species of most concern, the sixpenny scale Ctenochiton viridis, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries declined permission to release C. kuwanae on the grounds that perceived risk to endemic fauna outweighed potential economic benefit to the horticultural industry.
Charles JG, Hill MG and Allan DJ (1995). Releases and recoveries of Chilocorus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hemisarcoptes spp. (Acari: Hemisarcoptidae) in kiwifruit orchards: 1987-93. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 22: 319-324