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Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Pseudococcus viburni (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) = Pseudococcus affinis, Pseudococcus obscurus, obscure mealybug

Agent introduced: Acerophagus maculipennis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) = Pseudaphycus maculipennis

Imported: 1997

Import source: Australia

Import notes: Charles (2001), Charles et al. (2004) - A. maculipennis imported in 1997 into quarantine for host testing. From an initial 50 individuals, a small colony was maintained in quarantine until approval to release was given in September 2000.

Released: 2001

Release details: Charles et al. (2004) - from February 2001 until February 2004 approximately 750,000 A. maculipennis were released to 42 sites, which were 23 pipfruit orchards in Hawke’s Bay, 15 pipfruit orchards in the Nelson/ Moutere area, 3 apple blocks in Auckland and the Wellington Botanical Gardens.

Establishment: Charles et al. (2004) - by May 2004 A. maculipennis had been recovered from 22 of the 32 release sites sampled (12-17 months after release). They were recovered from 83% (15/18) of the ‘release’ orchards in Hawke’s Bay, and 60% (6/10) of the ‘release’ orchards in Nelson. They had also been recovered from the Wellington Botanic Gardens. The parasitoids were recovered up to 800 m from the release sites, with a dispersal rate of 100-300 m per year.

Impacts on non-targets: Charles (1999) - in host range tests in Australia and the Netherlands A. maculipennis only parasitised and emerged from P. viburni. Results of host range testing in New Zealand were substantially the same. A few Pseudococcus longispinus (an exotic pest in New Zealand) individuals were attacked and the parasitoid could successfully develop on this species. However, this was regarded to be an artefact of the confined conditions of the tests. All field recoveries (France and Australia) of A. maculipennis have been from P. viburni. A. maculipennis appears to be effectively monophagous on P. viburni.

General comments: 16 Apr 1999 - application by Hawke's Bay Pipfruit IFP Group 20 to release from containment the insect Pseudaphycus maculipennis [subsequently Acerophagus maculipennis (Trjapitzin 2008)] for biological control of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret 1875) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). ERMA Application # NOR99001, approved with no controls 4 August 2000.


Charles J. (2001). Introduction of a parasitoid for mealybug biocontrol. A case study under new environmental legislation. New Zealand Plant Protection 54: 37-41

Charles JG, Allan DJ, Rogers DJ, Cole LM, Shaw PW and Wallis DR. (2004). Mass rearing, establishment and dispersal of Pseudaphycus maculipennis, a biocontrol agent for Obscure Mealybug. New Zealand Plant Protection 57: 177-182

Charles JG. (1999). Application to remove from containment Pseudaphycus maculipennis. ERMA Application # NOR99001 http://www.epa.govt.nz/Publications/NOR99001-application.pdf

Trjapitzin VA. (2008). A review of encyrtid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) of Macaronesia Entomological Review 88 (2): 218–232