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Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Hieracium spp. (Asterales: Asteraceae), hawkweed

Agent introduced: Aulacidea subterminalis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), hieracium gall wasp

Imported: 1997, 1998, 199

Import source: Germany, 1997 1998; Switzerland, 1999

Released: 1999

Release details: Smith (2007) - lmported in 1997, widespread releases began in 1999.

Establishment: Smith (2007) - established but not widespread at sites in the North and South Islands. Landcare Research (2014c) - established but not yet common in the South Island and has not established yet in the North Island. Paynter et al. (2017) - abundant at some release sites.

Impacts on target: Landcare Research (2014c) - impact unknown but reduces stolon length in lab trials.

References

Landcare Research (2007). New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) Biological Control Voucher Collection. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/resources/collections/nzac/holdings/biological-control-voucher-collection

Paynter Q, Fowler SV, Groenteman R. (2017). Making weed biological control predictable, safer and more effective: perspectives from New Zealand. BioControl (First online: 8 Aug 2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-017-9837-5

Smith L (2007). Hieracium Gall Wasp. In The Biological Control of Weeds Book (Landcare Research) http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/weeds/book/documents/Hieracium_Gall_wasp.pdf