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Annotated bibliography

Post-release studies

Pathogens

References

Barton, J. (2012). Predictability of pathogen host range in classical biological control of weeds: an update. Biocontrol 57: 289-305
The author reports that to-date 28 species of fungi have been released as classical biological control agents against weeds world-wide. These pathogens have been reported infecting only six non-target plant species outdoors and all of these incidents were predicted. More non-target plant species developed disease symptoms in glasshouse tests than in the field.

Berg G., Grosch R. and Scherwinski K. (2007). Risk assessment for microbial antagonists: are there effects on non-target organisms? Gesunde Pflanzen 59: 107-117
Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi using antagonistic microorganisms is potentially environmentally friendly but possible non-target effects on ecologically important soil-microbes need to be considered. Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 and Streptomyces sp. HRO-71 were applied to control the pathogen Verticillium dahliae on strawberry and potato, and the bacterial strains Pseudomonas trivialis 3Re2-7, P. fluorescens L13-6-12, S. plymuthica 3Re4-18 and the fungal antagonists Trichoderma reesei G1/8 and T. viride G3/2 were introduced to control Rhizoctonia solani on lettuce and potato. After BCA treatment we did not observe any long-term effect on the plant-associated microbes in any tested pathosystem. Therefore, no sustainable risks could be seen for the indigenous micro-organisms.

Delalibera J.I. (2009). Biological Control of the Cassava Green Mite in Africa with Brazilian Isolates of the Fungal Pathogen Neozygites tanajoae. Pp. 259-269 In: Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods. A. E. Hajek, T. R. Glare and M. O'Callaghan (Eds.)

Harvey C.D., Alameen K.M, and Griffin C.T. (2012). The impact of entomopathogenic nematodes on a non-target, service-providing longhorn beetle is limited by targeted application when controlling forestry pest Hylobius abietis. Biological Control 62: 173-182.

O'Callaghan M. and Brownbridge M. (2009). Environmental impacts of microbial control agents used for control of invasive pests. In: Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods, Hajek, AE., Glare, TR., O'Callaghan, M. (Eds.) Progress in biological control Vol. 6: 305-327
Insect pathogens vary in key characteristics which determine their safety profile with respect to impacts on non-target species. Laboratory testing against beneficial species and post-application monitoring of impacts suggest that effects on non-target organisms, in comparison with other control methods are environmentally benign. Biopesticides can be attractive control options in many situations, and their use is likely to have minimal impact on beneficial and other non-target species. For example Bacillus thuringiensis, has not precipitated any major ecological disturbances, even when used in very intensive and prolonged eradication programmes.

Scherwinski K., Grosch R. and Berg G. (2007). Root application of bacterial antagonists to field-grown lettuce: effects on disease suppression and non-target microorganisms. Bulletin OILB/SROP 30: 257
This paper discusses biological control of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani which reduced yield in agricultural and horticultural crops using naturally antagonistic bacteria. The two rhizobacteria Pseudomonas trivialis (3Re2-7) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (L13-6-12) as well as the potato endophyte Serratia plymuthica (3Re4-18) were selected as effective Rhizoctonia antagonists. The impact of these bacteria on non-target lettuce-associated microorganisms was assessed after their root application in two field trials in Germany and all resulted in a significant increase of the dry weight and a significant decrease of the disease severity. The microbial communities of the rhizosphere, the endorhiza and the endophyllosphere of field-grown lettuce were examined and only transient changes in the composition of the bacterial communities were found. The authors concluded that an environmentally friendly and efficient biocontrol strategy can be developed.

Waipara N.W., Barton J., Smith L.A., Harman H.M., Winks C.J., Massey B., Wilkie J.P., Gianotti A.F. and Cripps, M.G. (2009). Safety in New Zealand weed biocontrol: a nationwide pathogen survey for impacts on non-target plants. New Zealand Plant Protection 62: 41-49.
Nationwide disease surveys conducted between 2000-2009 focused on species closely related to target weeds most at risk of attack. Disease damage attributable to biocontrol agents was observed on two non-target plants. Pustules of the blackberry rust, Phragmidium violaceum, were found on the endemic Rubus species, R. cissoides (bush lawyer, tataramoa) at one location as predicted from pre-release host range tests. No non-target damage was observed in the remaining case studies.

Withers T.M., Potter K.J.B., Berndt L.A., Forgie S.A., Paynter Q.E. and Kriticos D.J. (2011). Risk posed by the invasive defoliator Uraba lugens to New Zealand native flora. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13: 99110.