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Dormancy or hibernation to allow survival during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions.
augmentation biocontrol control
Release of supplementary biological control agents without the expectation of establishment.
Prevention of loss of biological integrity which lead to adverse impacts on ecology, human and animal health.
See symbiotic.
Geographical race or strain at sub-species level.
centrifugal phylogenetic testing
Host range testing for a biological control agent where potential non-target species are tested from those most closely phylogenetically related to the target organism, to those more distantly related to develop a host range profile.
classical biocontrol
Introduction of a natural enemy from the area of origin of a pest to a new area where the pest has become established. The biological control agent is expected to establish and spread.
In the same genus.
damage threshold
A level of crop damage below which economic losses are less than the cost of control.
density dependence
An effect on a population which changes in relation to the density of the population.
A physiological state of dormancy or hibernation which has evolved to enable organisms to survive during predictable periods of adverse conditions (cold, seasonal drought etc.).
ecological host range
Host range of a biological control agent that occurs in field conditions (cf. physiological host range).
A parasitoid that develops by feeding externally on its host.
A parasitoid that develops by feeding internally on its host.
Feeds on insects.
exotic species
A species that is not endemic or indigenous to the area where it is found, also known as alien, introduced or non-indigenous.
Capacity to reproduce.
food web
Connections between trophic levels in a community.
Faeces of invertebrates.
fundamental host range
The number of hosts which allow successful development of a biological control agent, also known as physiological host range.
genetic bottleneck
A point which is reached when a population drops to very low density, reducing genetic diversity.
The genetic constitution or genome of an organism (as opposed to physical appearance (=phenotype).
An organism that feeds on plants.
host immunosuppression
The suppression of the immune system of an organism by another organism to allow its development.
host range
The number of organisms in or on which another organism can complete its development(e.g. hosts in which parasitoids can develop successfully; plants on which herbivores an feed and survive successfully).
host-specificity testing
Tests usually conducted in quarantine or containment which are carried out with the purpose of defining host range.
A parasitoid which develops on another parasitoid.
A parasitoid which prevents further development of its host after parasitisation; the parasitoid often paralyses its host and feeds externally.
immune response
The response of an organism by its immune system to kill or disable an invading organism.
import health standard
A set of conditions imposed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry which must be met by an importer of a commodity.
indigenous species
Occurs naturally in an area.
indirect effects of biological control
Effects caused by a natural enemy other than direct effects on the survival of the organism attacked e.g. competition with another natural enemy; soil erosion as a result of plant death caused by a biological control agent.
inoculative biocontrol
Release of biological control agents which are expected to increase in numbers usually within a season, but not establish permanently.
intrinsic rate of increase
The natural capacity for a population to increase in an unlimited environment, usually designated by ‘r’ (i.e. reproductive rate minus death rate per generation).
inundative biocontrol
Release of large numbers of biological control agents to control a pest when the biological control agent is not expected to establish permanently or spread.
A volatile substance produced by one organism that benefits members of another species.
A parasitoid that allows further development of its host until the parasitoid has fully developed.
life table
A table which shows the proportion of the original cohort which is still alive at each stage of development of an organism.
matrix models
Population models that use matrix algebra to summarise large numbers of repetitive calculations.
A group of populations of a species which are spatially distinct but whereas individual populations wax and wane, the ‘population of populations’ is more stable.
An organism that feeds on only one species e.g. a parasitoid that can develop successfully on only one host species.
Structure and form of a species.
native range
The extent of an area where a species occurs naturally.
natural enemy
A predator, parasite or pathogen that has evolved to survive by attacking or infecting another species in a natural community.
non-target species
A species which is attacked by a biological control agent other than the species for which the biological control agent was intended.
An organism that feeds on a narrow range of species (see polyphagous and monophagous).
Egg-laying, term used for invertebrates.
An organism that is parasitic on a host organism and usually results in death of the host.
A form of reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual, usually a female which is the clone of its mother.
A disease-causing organism (bacteria, virus, fungus etc.).
Life cycle.
A volatile substance produced by insects to elicit a response from a member of the same species.
Evolutionary relatedness between organisms.
Study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
physiological host range
The number of hosts which allow successful development of a biological control agent, also known as fundamental host range.
See herbivore.
Feeds on plants, herbivore.
An organism which is unable to self-regulate its body temperature e.g. invertebrates.
Virus-like particles associated with some parasitic Hymenoptera. Polydnavirus particles are injected into the host during parasitisation and there they transcribe proteins which interfere with host immune defences, development, and physiology. This allows the parasitoid to survive and develop within the host.
A species that is able to feed on or infect a wide range of organisms.
population dynamics
Study of changes in population density over time.
An organism that feeds by consuming other living organisms.
The chance that something will occur, usually calculated as hazard x exposure.
risk assessment
Evaluation and likelihood of whether a risk event will occur.
Two organisms living closely together, often with mutual benefit.
In taxonomy, another published name for an organism already named.
target species
The intended pest species for which a biological control agent is introduced to control.
In a food chain or food web the trophic levels describe which organisms are consumed by which. A tritrophic effect is one which impacts at the third level, for example a plant might produces compounds for defence, which then has an impact on the herbivores which eat the plant, and thirdly, a parasitoid which attacks the herbivore.
Ability of an organism to move or disperse.
Number of generations in a year.
Any plant growing where it is unwanted.