Target pest: Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), potato tuber moth
Agent introduced: Campoplex haywardi (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
1964, 1966-67, 1969-70
Northern Argentina and southern Brazil: via California, USA (1964); via India (1966-67, 1969-70)
Cameron et al. (1989) - in July 1964, three shipments, each of approximately 50 C. haywardi in host larvae were imported from the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control station at Fontana, California, USA to Nelson, New Zealand. The first shipment arrived in good condition, the second in mediocre condition, the third in poor condition. The fate of the imported individuals was not recorded. Between November 1966 and March 1967 there was one shipment of C. haywardi from the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control station in India to Nelson, with all individuals being directly released. Between November 1969 and April 1970 there were a further two shipments of C. haywardi from India; most were directly released although a small number were retained at Nelson for laboratory culture. A limited number were bred and a few released there before the laboratory host population became infected with a granulosis virus and the rearing programme was terminated. The C. haywardi material had been originally sourced from northern Argentina and southern Brazil in 1963-64 and cultured at the Californian Station of CIBC, from where the 1964 shipments were made to New Zealand; when this station closed, the colony was transferred to the Indian Station of CIBC, from where the 1966-67 and 1969-70 shipments were made to New Zealand.
1964? [see Cameron et al. (1989) entry in 'Release details' section], 1966-67 (first definitive record of release)
Cameron et al. (1989) - records do not indicate if releases were made from the 1964 importations. Approximate numbers released from the 1966-67 importation were 55 at Lincoln, Canterbury and Oamaru, North Otago, South Island (specific numbers at each site was not clear in the records). Approximate numbers released from the 1969-70 importations were 125 at Lincoln/Oamaru and 77 at Nelson.
Cameron et al. (1989) - sporadic examination of potato tubers and foliage at Oamaru, North Otago and Lincoln, Canterbury for P. opercullela parasitoids was undertaken between mid-1967 and late-1973; there are no records of C. haywardi being detected. The C. haywardi released at Nelson in 1969-70 were not known to have bred in that season.
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.