Target pest: Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) = Pseudococcus affinis, Pseudococcus obscurus, obscure mealybug
Agent introduced: Chrysopa sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
1890, 1921, 1928
Australia or USA (1891), Australia (1921, 1928)
Cameron et al. (1989) - an American researcher, en route to Australia in 1891, released some pupae of Chrysopa sp. in New Zealand. It is not clear whether this was an American species or descendants of an Australian species introduced into California in 1889. Two consignments of Chrysopa sp. from Australia, comprised of â€˜manyâ€™ larvae and pupae, together with jars of adults and eggs, arrived in New Zealand in 1921, one on 26 October, the other 1 November. Eggs and larvae were reared and some adults and larvae released. Between August 1927 and February 1928, natural enemies of Pseudococcus calceolariae were collected in Australia for the Citrus Experimental Station in California, USA. In February 1928, en route back to the USA, individuals of some of the species collected, including Chrysopa sp., were left in New Zealand. They were taken to the Cawthron Institute in Nelson, but were not released. There is some evidence the Chrysopa sp. of all these importations were, in fact, C. ramburi, a consignment of which was also imported in 1928 [see the Chrysopa ramburi introduction record].
Cameron et al. (1989) - some Chrysopa sp. pupae were released in 1891; no further details are available. Thirty-five adult and about 75 larval Chrysopa sp. were released in Nelson, South Island during November and December 1921.
Cameron et al. (1989) - Chrysopa sp. were recorded feeding on mealybugs in Auckland and Whangarei (Northland) in the North Island in 1898 [presumably descendants of the 1891 release]. There were no recoveries from the 1921 Nelson releases. Chysopa species predatory on mealybugs (or scale insects) are not known in New Zealand at present, so it seems none of the early releases have established.
Taxonomic note (24 February 2023) - Pseudococcus viburni is best known in earlier literature as Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell 1894) and P. obscurus Essig 1909, from which is derived its common name â€˜obscure mealybugâ€™ (Charles 2011). Cameron et al. (1989), for example, refer to it as P. affinis. However, Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1995) designated these names (and others) as junior synonyms of P. viburni (Signoret 1875).
Ben-Dov Y, Matile-Ferrero D (1995). The identity of the mealybug taxa described by V.A. Signoret (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la SociÃ©tÃ© Entomologique de France 100(3): 241-256 https://www.persee.fr/doc/bsef_0037-928x_1995_num_100_3_17152
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.
Charles JG (2011). Using parasitoids to infer a native range for the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, in South America. BioControl 56(2): 155-161