B3   >>   BCANZ home   ·   Search database   ·   Browse database

Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) = Pseudococcus citrophilus, Pseudococcus fragilus, Pseudococcus gahani, Pseudococcus similans, citrophilus mealybug

Agent introduced: Chrysopa sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)


1891, 1921, 1928

Import source:

Australia or USA (1891), Australia (1921, 1928)

Import notes:

Cameron et al. (1989) - an American researcher, en route to Australia in 1891, released some pupae of Chrysopa sp. in New Zealand. It is not clear whether this was an American species or descendants of an Australian species introduced into California in 1889. Two consignments of Chrysopa sp. from Australia, comprised of ‘many’ larvae and pupae, together with jars of adults and eggs, arrived in New Zealand in 1921, one on 26 October, the other 1 November. Eggs and larvae were reared and some adults and larvae released. Between August 1927 and February 1928, natural enemies of Pseudococcus calceolariae were collected in Australia for the Citrus Experimental Station in California, USA. In February 1928, en route back to the USA, individuals of some of the species collected, including Chrysopa sp., were left in New Zealand. They were taken to the Cawthron Institute in Nelson, but were not released. There is some evidence the Chrysopa sp. of all these importations were, in fact, C. ramburi, a consignment of which was also imported in 1928 [see the Chrysopa ramburi introduction record].



Release details:

Cameron et al. (1989) - some Chrysopa sp. pupae were released in 1891; no further details are available. Thirty-five adult and about 75 larval Chrysopa sp. were released in Nelson, South Island during November and December 1921.


Cameron et al. (1989) - Chrysopa sp. were recorded feeding on mealybugs in Auckland and Whangarei (Northland) in the North Island in 1898 [presumably descendants of the 1891 release]. There were no recoveries from the 1921 Nelson releases. Chysopa species predatory on mealybugs (or scale insects) are not known in New Zealand at present, so it seems none of the early releases have established.


Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.