Target pest: aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Agent introduced: Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), 11 spotted ladybird
Imported: 1874 (but see General Comments below)
Import source: Europe
Release details: Unknown
Establishment: Cameron et al. (1989) - very widely established.
Impacts on target: Cameron et al. (1989) - occasionally decimates aphid populations but is rare in spring aphid populations. It's impact is compromised by parasitism by Dinocampus coccinellae (up to 85%) and infection of over wintering populations by Beauveria bassiana (up to 90% mortality in wet winters).
General comments: Galbreath and Cameron (2015) - although the introduction of C. undecimpunctata in 1874 is widely quoted as the first introduction of an insect into NZ for biocontrol, literature analysis reveals no evidence such an introduction was ever attempted. There is clear evidence this is a spurious record created by cumulative misreporting, and that this insect has therefore established from an accidental introduction.
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.
Galbreath RA and Cameron PJ (2015). The introduction of the eleven-spotted ladybird Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to New Zealand in 1874: a spurious record created by cumulative misreporting. New Zealand Entomologist 38 (1): 7-9