Target pest: Cytisus scoparius (Fabales: Fabaceae), Scotch broom, broom
Agent introduced: Agonopterix assimilella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae), broom shoot moth
UK (Surrey and Yorkshire), southern France
Hill (2006) - if the 2006 application to EPA to release G. olivacea is approved [as it was - see 'EPA applications' section] it is proposed that approximately 200 overwintering larvae of A. assimilella will be collected from broom in England and shipped to containment in New Zealand in April/May 2006, to be line-reared prior to release.
Gourlay (2009) - first imported in 2006 by Landcare Research on behalf of the Canterbury Broom Group.
Gourlay (2009) - first released 2007.
Hill (2006) - once released from containment, it is proposed that initial releases of moths will be into large cloth bags over broom bushes at at least one Canterbury site in early-summer 2007.
Gourlay (2009) - released at 9 sites so far [March 2009].
Gourlay (2010d) - widespread releases are now underway.
Landcare Research (2014c) - released at limited sites as difficult to rear.
Landcare Research (2013b) - only evidence of establishment at one site in Southland to date.
Landcare Research (2016i) - establishment success is uncertain.
Landcare Research (2017g) - appears to be established in low numbers at perhaps 3 sites.
Landcare Research (2019h, 2022g) - it is uncertain if this moth has managed to successfully establish in New Zealand.
Impacts on non-targets:
Hill (2006b) - in the field in Europe there are records of A. assimilella feeding on several Cytisus spp., Lupinus arboreus, Genista cinerea, and G. florida, but on no plants outside the tribe Genisteae. Host range testing against 64 plant species of 26 families was conducted in Europe from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that no native plants, or economically valuable plants outside the tribe Genisteae, would be at risk from A. assimilella in New Zealand. It is unlikely that any non-target species other than Cytisus proliferus [tree lucerne] would be true hosts in this country. Cytisus scoparius is the preferred host, but the possibility that larvae would be found on non-target plant species within the Genisteae in New Zealand cannot be ruled out on the evidence of these tests. However, with the possible exception of tree lucerne, there is no evidence that these would be substantive hosts.
EPA (2005c) - 18 Nov 2005: application by the Canterbury Broom Group to import into containment the broom biological control agents Aceria genistae and Agonopterix assimillela for breeding purposes pending release approval. EPA Application # NOC05012, approved with controls 18 Dec 2005.
EPA (2006) - 13 Mar 2006: application by the Canterbury Broom Group to release from containment Aceria genistae, Agonopterix assimilella and Gonioctena olivacea for biological control of the weed broom. EPA Application # NOR05003, approved for A. assimilella and G. olivacea with controls 25 July 2006.
EPA (2005c). EPA Application NOC05012 to import into containment the broom biological control agents Aceria genistae and Agonopterix assimillela for breeding purposes pending release approval. Environmental Protection Authority website https://www.epa.govt.nz/database-search/hsno-application-register/view/NOC05012
EPA (2006). EPA application NOR05003: to conditionally release from containment a mite, Aceria genistae (Eriophyidae), and two insects, Agonopterix assimilella (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae) and Gonioctena olivacea (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), for biological control of the weed broom. Environmental Protection Authority website https://www.epa.govt.nz/database-search/hsno-application-register/view/NOR05003
Gourlay H. (2009). The biological control of broom (Cytisus scoparius). IUFRO International Forest Biosecurity Conference, 16-20 March 2009, Rotorua, New Zealand. Popular Summaries. Compiled by Richardson M, Hodgson C and Forbes A. New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited. 230-232
Gourlay H. (2010d). Broom Shoot Moth. In The Biological Control of Weeds Book (Landcare Research). https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/discover-our-research/biosecurity/weed-management/using-biocontrol/the-biological-control-of-weeds-book/
Hill R (2006b). Application to import for release or release from containment new organisms (Aceria genistae, Agonopterix assimilella and Gonioctena olivacea). EPA Application Number NOR05003 https://www.epa.govt.nz/assets/FileAPI/hsno-ar/NOR05003/c38af9007b/NOR05003.pdf
Landcare Research (2013b). Spring activities What's new in biological control of weeds? 65: 9 http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/biological-control-of-weeds/issue-65
Landcare Research (2014c). Who's who in biocontrol of weeds? What's new in biological control of weeds? 69: 10-11 https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/assets/Publications/Weed-biocontrol/WhatsNew69.pdf
Landcare Research (2016i). Who's who in biological control of weeds? Weed Biocontrol: What's New? 77: 10-11 http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/biological-control-of-weeds/issue-77
Landcare Research (2017g). Who's who in biological control of weeds? Weed Biocontrol: What's New? 81: 10-11 https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/biological-control-of-weeds/issue-81
Landcare Research (2019h). Spring activities. Weed Biocontrol: What's New? 89, August 2019 https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/biological-control-of-weeds/weed-biocontrol-issue-89/spring-activities
Landcare Research (2022g). Spring activities. Weed Biocontrol: What's New? 101, August 2022 https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/weed-biocontrol/weed-biocontrol-articles/spring-activities-3/