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Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), bluegreen lucerne aphid

Agent introduced: Ephedrus plagiator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)



Import source:

Japan via USA.

Import notes:

Cameron et al. (1989) - imported in 1977 from University of California, Riverside, USA.



Release details:

Cameron et al. (1989) - 4,530 individuals were released 1977-78.


Cameron et al. (1989) - some early recoveries were made in Hawke's Bay (central North Island) and Lincoln (Mid Canterbury, South Island) but these did not persist.

Teulon et al. (2008) - although Cameron et al. (1989) noted that field recoveries did not persist [see entry above] this species is listed in the 2007 Landcare Research Checklist of New Zealand Hymenoptera as being in New Zealand, based on a personal communication from Mary Carver (CSIRO).

Impacts on non-targets:

Bulman et al. (2021) - to identify Aphidiinae parasitoids [the subfamily of family Braconidae to which Ephedrus belongs] of native New Zealand aphids, native aphids were collected throughout the South Island between 2006 and 2018. Aphidiinae parasitism was rare; in total, parasitism was observed from eight native aphid species at 16 locations. All cases of parasitism were by phylogenetically related native Aphidiinae, and it seems reasonable to conclude that this is the predominant parasitoid threat that these aphids experience. The total number of parasitoids located was low due to the rarity of the aphid hosts themselves, so the possibility of infrequent interactions between biocontrol agents and endemic aphids cannot be eliminated. However, over the 14-year collection period of this study, no examples of native aphid parasitism by introduced Aphidiinae was found.


Bulman S, Drayton GM, Cameron PJ, Teulon DAJ, Walker GP (2021). Endemic New Zealand aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) parasitised by native Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), not biological control parasitoids. Austral Entomology 60(4): 713-721 https://doi.org/10.1111/aen.12564

Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.

Teulon DAJ, Drayton GM, Scott IAW (2008). Exotic introductions of primary parasitoids of aphids in New Zealand: the good and the bad. In: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods (eds PG Mason, DR Gillespie & C Vincent), pp. 421–430. USDA, Forest Service, Morgantown, WV. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/FullTextPDF/2009/20093074320.pdf