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Biocontrol introduction

Target pest: Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), green vegetable bug

Agent introduced: Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera: Tachinidae)



Import source:

Florida via Hawaii

Import notes:

Cameron et al. (1989) - a total of 235 pupae of T. pennipes was received from Hawaii in January and February 1965. The original material was obtained from Florida in 1963 and established in Hawaii in 1964. It was reared successfully on field-collected N. viridula adults from 1965 to February 1967.



Release details:

Cameron et al. (1989) - three releases were made at Paihia, Northland during the periods February 1965, February-March 1966 and December 1966-January 1967, and comprised 3,730 parasitised N. viridula adults and 80 adult T. pennipes. A factor reported to limit the success of T. pennipes released as adults was predation of the flies by Vespula germanica.


Cameron et al. (1989) - failed to establish. There were no recoveries from the first two releases, but in May 1967, four months after last release, four N. viridula individuals were found each with a single T. pennipes egg attached. This indicated the survival of at least one generation, but no further recoveries have been reported.

Jo Poulton, Plant and Food Research (2021 - pers. comm.) - 40 of 56 (71%) N. viridula collected in Te Puke, Bay of Plenty in March 2020 were parasitised by T. pennipes. Trichopoda pennipes eggs (between one and seven on each parasitised N. viridula individual) were found on host 3rd and 4th instar nymphs and adults. It is not known if this T. pennipes population represents establishment and spread from the original releases or a more recent accidental introduction.


Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.