Target pest: Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), codling moth
Agent introduced: Ascogaster quadridentata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Farnham Royal, UK
Cameron et al. (1989) - about 700 codling moth larvae parasitised with A. quadridentata were imported (under the synonym Ascogaster carpocapsae) from Farnham Royal, UK in January 1931. Six hundred were stored at 4Â°C until spring, from which 208 adult wasps emerged between November 1931 and January 1932. Twelve wasps emerged from the remaining 100 parasitised larvae in March/April 1931, but died because no codling moth eggs were available for oviposition. A second shipment of 1,371 parasitised codling moth larvae arrived from Farnham Royal in August 1931. A third shipment was received from Canada in 1942, but adults that emerged failed to survive until codling moth eggs were available the following spring.
Cameron et al. (1989) - releases from the first two importations [see 'Import notes' section] were made in December 1931 and January 1932 as follows: 150 in Hawkes Bay, 125 in Auckland, 524 in Nelson and 15 in Murchison (Tasman region, northern South Island).
Cameron et al. (1989) - established; collected in Nelson since the 1950's and found in Canterbury in a 1980s study of overwintering codling moth.
Sandanayaka et al. (2017) - found commonly in Nelson and Central Otago, and in low numbers in Hawke's Bay, while monitoring for the biocontrol agent Mastrus ridens.
Impacts on target:
Cameron et al. (1989) - parasitism levels reach 30% but are variable. Has not reduced pest status of C. pomonella and provides little protection to the fruit from damage.
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.
Sandanayaka M, Charles J, Davis V, Chhagan A, Shaw P, Wallis R, Lo P, Cole L, Walker J, Colhoun K. (2017). Establishment of Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), an ectoparasitoid of codling moth, in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 11-15, 2017: 85-87 https://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/FullTextPDF/2017/20173267456.pdf