Target pest: Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) = Pseudococcus citrophilus, Pseudococcus fragilus, Pseudococcus gahani, Pseudococcus similans, citrophilus mealybug
Agent introduced: Nephus binaevatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) = Scymnus binaevatus, dusky lady beetle
1924, 1926 (not released); self-introduced, detected sometime after 2000
Cameron et al. (1989) - between February 1924 and December 1926, five shipments of assorted mealybug [Pseudococcidae] natural enemies arrived in New Zealand from California, USA. The consignments contained natural enemies that were effective against mealybug pests (especially Pseudococcus citri) in California at the time. All imported individuals were placed in an insectary in Nelson, but none survived. Many, and sometimes all, were dead on arrival in New Zealand. There were no releases from these consignments. Nephus binaevatus [as Scymnus binaevatus] was included in three of these consignments, arriving on 16 February 1924, 7 January 1926 and 21 December 1926.
Martin (2017) - Nephus binaevatus is self-introduced in New Zealand, first found in Mount Albert, Auckland sometime after 2000.
Cameron et al. (1989) - not released.
Martin (2017) - an accidental introduction, N. binaevatus was first found in Mount Albert, Auckland sometime after 2000, and later in Avondale, Auckland. It is only known from a small area of Auckland.
Impacts on target:
Martin (2017) - Nephus binaevatus has not been recorded on exotic pest mealybugs in New Zealand.
Impacts on non-targets:
Martin (2017) - in New Zealand, Nephus binaevatus has only been found feeding on the New Zealand flax mealybug, Trionymus diminutus [syn. Balanococcus diminutus].
Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989). A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874-1987. Technical Communication No 10. CAB International Institute of Biological Control. DSIR Entomology Division. 424p.
Martin NA (2017). Dusky lady beetle - Nephus binaevatus. Interesting insects and other invertebrates. New Zealand Arthropod Factsheet Series Number 106. (Accessed 13 Mar 2023) https://nzacfactsheets.landcareresearch.co.nz/factsheet/InterestingInsects/Dusky-lady-beetle---Nephus-binaevatus.html