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Selecting biological control agents

Experimental confirmation of host range

Indicators of effects

Manipulation and surrogate systems

The ability of control agents to attack non-target species has been estimated by exposing susceptible life stages in the field. Babendreier et al. (2006) review a number of such studies.


Babendreier D., Bigler F. and Kuhlmann U. (2006). Current status and constraints in the assessment of non-target effects. Pp. 1-13 In: Environmental impact of invertebrates for biological control of arthropods methods and risk assessment, F. , F. Bigler, D. Babendreier and U. Kuhlmann (Ed.) CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK